The KM Cookbook: Stories and Strategies for Organisations Exploring Knowledge Management Standard ISO30401 by Chris Collision, Paul Corney, and Patricia Eng
Woo, Wow, and Win: Service Design, Strategy, and the Art of Customer Delight by Thomas Stewart and Patricia O’Connell
Building Smarter Organizations: How to Lead Your Zombie Organization Back to Life by Gordon Vala-Webb
Review of KM Systems Implementation: Lessons from Silicon Valley (September, 2008)
Knowledge Management Systems Implementation: Lessons from the Silicon Valley by Hind Benbya features two chapters from close colleagues of mine. Bruce Karney(formerly of HP) and Doug Madgic (formerly of Cisco) have contributed useful details on their experiences in implementing successful KM programs.
Part 3 of the book is “KMS implementation” and includes two chapters. Chapter 5 is “Structuring knowledge in KMS: lessons from Cisco” and covers knowledge creation, distribution, and application, along with a case study. Of particular interest are a table of knowledge elicitation techniques, a detailed discussion of search mechanisms, examples of the Cisco Knowledge Connection portal, and Cisco’s framework for structuring knowledge.
Chapter 6 is “Defining KMS incentives and motivation schemes: lessons from HP” and covers incentives structures and a case study on defining incentive programs in KM and lessons learned at HP. Of particular interest are a review of types of incentive programs, when a reward program is not an incentive program, incentive program inefficiency, administration of incentive programs, and lessons learned.
The book also provides other useful examples from HP. The Engagement Knowledge Map which lists KM tools used to support the HP customer engagement roadmap. Formulas for 7 KM metrics used at HP are defined, including measurements of active user participation and usage of available KM tools.
I am proud of the KM program that Bruce and I helped to manage at HP. I also know from frequent interactions with Doug Madgic at Cisco that their program is also worth studying. This book allows readers to learn about the good work of Bruce at HP, Doug at Cisco, and other leading KM practitioners. Those who take advantage of these examples by reusing the ideas in their own KM initiatives will definitely benefit.
Review of Enterprise 2.0 (November, 2009)
Andrew McAfee coined the term Enterprise 2.0. He defines it as the use of emergent social software platforms by organizations in pursuit of their goals.
I highly recommend this book to three main types of readers:
- General managers (McAfee’s target audience)
- Information technology (IT) and knowledge management (KM) practitioners
- Enterprise 2.0, social media, and collaboration evangelists, change agents, and early adopters
I made this recommendation during the January 5, 2010 KMers.org TweetChat: “I recommend that you provide copies of Enterprise 2.0 by Andrew McAfee to your senior leaders and ask them to read it.” The book is aimed at them, and it can be helpful in getting decision makers to overcome their fear of the risks of social media and allow implementations of collaborative tools within their organizations.
McAfee’s goals for the book are to discuss:
- Collaborative technologies
- Similarities between these technologies
- How organizations are applying these technologies
- How to succeed with Enterprise 2.0
He defines three trends which yield better tools:
- Free and easy platforms for communication and interaction
- Lack of imposed structure
- Mechanisms to let structure emerge
McAfee coins the term SLATES for the features shared by emergent social software platforms (ESSPs):
He discusses six benefits of Enterprise 2.0:
- Group editing
- Broadcast search
- Network formation and maintenance
- Collective intelligence
McAfee suggests six organizational strategies:
- Determine desired results, then deploy ESSPs
- Prepare for the long haul
- Communicate, educate, and evangelize
- Move ESSPs into the flow
- Measure progress, not ROI
- Show that Enterprise 2.0 is valued
For me, three highlights from the book are:
- Help key managers in your organization to understand why Enterprise 2.0 is useful and inevitable. Then help them to implement collaborative platforms, recommend appropriate uses for the tools, and promote the use of collaborative technologies through communications and leading by example.
- Collective intelligence represents a relatively untapped and potentially valuable opportunity. Look for opportunities to implement prediction markets within your organization for forecasting, planning, and innovating.
- Be bold in overcoming objections based on the fear of Enterprise 2.0 red herrings. Show how transparent collaboration will actually reduce, not increase, the risks of noncompliance, theft, and discovery.
I attended McAfee’s KMWorld 2009 keynote. Here were the key points he made.
Keys to Enterprise 2.0 success
- Altruism — stop obsessing about risks
- Process — beware of the one best way
- Innovation — expertise is emergent, question credentialism, build communities that people want to join
- Intelligence — enable peer review
- Benefits — narrate your work, make it easy for people to interconnect
- Impact — we’re not going back to business as usual
How to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory
- Declare war on the enterprise
- Allow walled gardens to flourish
- Accentuate the negative
- Try to replace email
- Fall in love with features
- Overuse the world “social”
To view and hear an earlier presentation, here is a recording.
- Introduction. “Web 2.0” is the portion of the Internet that’s interactively produced by many people; it includes Wikipedia, Facebook, Twitter, Delicious, and prediction markets. In just a few years, Web 2.0 communities have demonstrated astonishing levels of innovation, knowledge accumulation, collaboration, and collective intelligence. Now, leading organizations are bringing the Web’s novel tools and philosophies inside, creating Enterprise 2.0. In this book, Andrew McAfee shows how they’re doing this, and why it’s benefiting them. Enterprise 2.0 makes clear that the new technologies are good for much more than just socializing. When properly applied, they help businesses solve pressing problems, capture dispersed and fast-changing knowledge, highlight and leverage expertise, generate and refine ideas, and harness the wisdom of crowds. Most organizations, however, don’t find it easy or natural to use these new tools initially. And executives see many possible pitfalls associated with them. Enterprise 2.0 explores these concerns and shows how business leaders can overcome them. McAfee brings together case studies and examples with key concepts from economics, sociology, computer science, consumer psychology, and management studies and presents them all in a clear, accessible, and entertaining style. Enterprise 2.0 is for all C-suite executives seeking to make technology decisions that are simultaneously powerful, popular, and pragmatic.
Part I: Enterprise 2.0: The Power of Technology-Enabled Collaboration
- Vexations and Missed Opportunities in Group Work: Why Companies Need Enterprise 2.0 Tools — Four Case Studies. As organizations move toward a culture of information, group-level work and interactions among knowledge workers have become critical to companies’ survival. And that means putting people in touch with each other across today’s large and fragmented enterprises, tapping into the “wisdom of crowds,” and giving people easier, faster, and better access to the information they need to do their jobs well — using IT. And that’s a problem, because too few organizations understand how to use IT resources for group work, leading to everything from lost business opportunities to the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In this chapter, Andrew McAfee lays out the case histories of four very different organizations with very different problems to solve — VistaPrint, Serena Software, the U.S. intelligence community, and Google. These stories are think pieces, prompting you to consider not only the specific cases, but how these dilemmas may relate to your own organization’s needs.
- Web 2.0 and the Emergence of Emergence: A History, Explanation, and Definition of Enterprise 2.0. Web 2.0 — the new set of technologies that has appeared over the past few years on the Internet — is not mere “hype,” nor is it of interest only to e-tailers and other Internet companies. Rather, it is extremely relevant to all organizations that want to bring people together into communities that generate useful information and knowledge and solve problems effectively. But far too many organizations don’t know where to start, or even what tools are available. In this chapter, Andrew McAfee provides an overview of what these new tools are and describes some of the resources and communities — blogs, Twitter, wikis, Delicious, and social networking among them — that have sprung up around them on the Internet. Using examples such as Wikipedia and Google, McAfee outlines the three trends that combine to yield new and powerful avenues for collaboration and interaction, and how they apply to “Enterprise 2.0” — the use of emergent social software platforms by organizations in pursuit of their business and strategy goals.
- New Approaches to Old Problems: Expanding the Universe of Interpersonal Ties with Emerging Internet Applications — Hitting the Bull’s-Eye with Enterprise 2.0. With the advent of Internet connectivity, the tendency to focus only on strongly tied colleagues within enterprises has given way to a broader and more useful perspective. The ability to form, maintain, and exploit more casual ties, and the ability to convert potential ties into actual ones are hugely valuable assets, both to individuals and to the enterprises in which they work. Indeed, many analysts have found that the greatest value of the Web’s emergent social software platforms, including blogs, is their ability to connect people — and the information they have to offer — who would otherwise have remained isolated from one another. In this chapter Andrew McAfee dives deep into how interpersonal ties are created and organized on the Web and shows how levels of interaction — from very tight networks to no contact at all — can provide invaluable benefits. He presents four stories — VistaPrint, Serena Software, the U.S. intelligence community, and Google — that vividly illustrate how companies have exploited emergent social software platforms (ESSPs) to use ties between people to solve their most critical problems, from building a healthy corporate culture among far-flung offices to building prediction markets to revolutionizing the sharing of security intelligence.
- Uniquely Valuable: The Benefits of Enterprise 2.0. What do proliferating social networking applications have to do with the way a business runs? A lot more than you might imagine. Indeed, emergent social software platforms (ESSPs) provide valuable capabilities that are nearly impossible to acquire without them — unique Enterprise 2.0 benefits. In this chapter Andrew McAfee lays out six powerful benefits of using ESSPs in organizations: group editing, authoring, broadcast search, network formation and maintenance, collective intelligence, and self-organization. Each one is described in detail, along with the ESSPs most closely associated with it. And McAfee offers deep insights into the remarkable ways these benefits can reshape the way organizations get their work done.
Part II: Succeeding with Enterprise 2.0
- Red Herrings and Long Hauls: What Is, and Isn’t, Difficult About Adopting the New Tools and Approaches. When considering an Enterprise 2.0 effort, many business decision makers have some typical concerns: How do we get employees to use the new capabilities? Will people just use social networking software to plan happy hour, rather than to get work done? If the information on these platforms really is valuable, won’t it be harvested by spies and sold to the highest bidder? In the end, many companies conclude that whatever the benefits of Enterprise 2.0, it’s not worth running the array of risks indicated by these and other questions. According to author Andrew McAfee, they are making a big mistake — these concerns, he maintains, are mostly red herrings. This chapter looks realistically at the principal challenges of Enterprise 2.0, the main obstacles to an organization’s successful deployment of emergent social software platforms (ESSPs). McAfee begins by boldly laying out many of the feared negative implications, and then addresses point by point how the very attributes of ESSPs actually militate against their abuse. He also deflates unrealistic expectations, addressing the actual problems organizations are likely to encounter as they move to an Enterprise 2.0 model, and offers solid advice on how these, too, can be overcome.
- Going Mainstream: A Road Map for Enterprise 2.0 Success. Successfully adopting and benefiting from Web 2.0 tools can’t be reduced to a single step-by-step recipe; there are too many variables, and appropriate actions depend critically on both the goals of the effort and the characteristics of the organization. In this chapter Andrew McAfee presents guidelines and advice — a road map — to help leaders deploy the new social software tools successfully, stressing simple actions that leaders can take to increase the depth and breadth of their organizations’ participation in the new digital environments for solid business results. The author presents the six key activities — determine desired results, then deploy appropriate emergent social software platforms (ESSPs); prepare for the long haul; communicate, educate, and evangelize; move ESSPs into the flow; measure progress, not ROI; and show that Enterprise 2.0 is valued — that can make the transition both smooth and rewarding.
- Looking Ahead: The Future of Enterprise 2.0 — The Vision, The Liar’s Club, and Model 1 Versus Model 2 Behavior. Do Web applications really matter in corporate competitive battles? Do they differentiate organizations from each other and help separate winners from losers? Emphatically yes, claims Andrew McAfee, who uses this chapter to explain just how technology matters and how Enterprise 2.0 — the effective use of Web tools in pursuit of business and strategy goals — increases its importance. But will companies be able to embrace the new order? Acknowledging that entrenched organizational practices — two obstacles in particular — can make Enterprise 2.0 difficult, McAfee reveals how the tools and approaches of Enterprise 2.0 can themselves be very powerful weapons for changing these practices, while preserving your organization’s underlying values — because leadership, management, and hierarchy remain essential for the success of Enterprise 2.0 companies.